Bilateral relations between the EU and Kazakhstan are based on the 1994 Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA).  The improvement of Kazakhstan`s partnership and cooperation with the European Union and its Member States was ratified by the Kazakh Parliament in March 2016.  The European Parliament ratified the agreement on 12 December 2017.  511 MPs out of 654 present voted in favour of ratification.  Eighteen EU Member States have ratified the Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (EPCA) with Kazakhstan.  Kazakhstan is the first Central Asian country to have concluded the EBSD with the EU.  IIA Mapping Project The IIA Mapping Project is a cooperative initiative between UNCTAD and universities around the world to represent the content of IIAs. The resulting database serves as a tool to understand trends in the development of the IIA, assess the prevalence of different policy approaches and identify examples of contracts. The “Mapping of IIA Content” allows you to browse the results of previous projects (the page will be updated regularly when the new results are updated). Please cite as: UNCTAD, Mapping of IIA Content, available under investmentpolicy.unctad.org/international-investment-agreements/iia-mapping For more information: Project Mapping Project description & Methodology Document Relations between the European Union and Kazakhstan are the international relations between the Republic of Kazakhstan and the common external and trade relations of the European Union. In 2014, more than half of Kazakhstan`s total trade with the EU took place – about $53.4 billion in 2013 and $28.4 billion in the first half of 2014.  More than half of Kazakhstan`s gross direct investment, or almost $100 billion, comes from EU countries.  Trade with the EU amounted to €31 billion (36%).
The EU is also the largest foreign investor in Kazakhstan and accounts for more than 50% of foreign direct investment in Kazakhstan (2014).  In April 2008, Kazakhstan and the EU reached an agreement on the establishment of a human rights dialogue. Human rights dialogues are an instrument of EU foreign policy, aiming to discuss issues of mutual interest, improve cooperation in the field of human rights and take initiatives to improve the human rights situation. In line with this agreement, the EU conducted its first structured human rights dialogues with Kazakhstan in October 2008.  IIA Navigator This database of IAs – the IIA Navigator – is managed by UNCTAD`s IIA Section. You can browse the IIAs concluded by a particular country or group of countries, view the recently concluded ais or use the extended contract search for demanding research tailored to your needs. Please cite UNCTAD, International Investment Agreements Navigator, available under investmentpolicy.unctad.org/international-investment-agreements/ The EPCA entered into force on 1 March 2020. . . .