Switzerland (which has a customs union with Liechtenstein, which is sometimes contained in agreements) has bilateral agreements with the following countries and blocs: EFTA has bilateral agreements with the following countries and blocs, including dependent territories: the following institutions were created to facilitate the implementation of the free trade area. As a result of the Phase II negotiations, additional committees may be set up through minutes.  The African Free Trade Area announced at the EAC-SADC-COMESA Summit (also known as the AFTZ and Tripartite Summit) is the realization of a dream of more than a hundred years, a trade zone that stretches the length of the African continent from Cape Town to Cairo, from Egypt in North Africa to the southernmost tip of Africa in South Africa (Cape). The dream of Cape to Cairo was closed to life by Cecil Rhodes and other British imperialists in the 1890s and expressed in various contexts and versions, including, but not limited, the following ideals: Cape to Cairo Road, Cape to Cairo Railway, Cape to Cairo Telegraph and Cape to Cairo Trade Union. The 12th African Union extraordinary meeting on AfCFTA was convened to bring the new agreement into its operational phase, which was held in Niamey on 7 July 2019.   Most AU member states have signed the agreement. Benin, Botswana, Eritrea, Guinea-Bissau, Nigeria and Zambia did not sign the agreement.  Nigerian President Muhammadu Buhari was particularly reluctant to join if it against Nigerian entrepreneurship and Nigerian industry.  On 7 July 2019, Nigeria and Benin pledged to sign free trade with Africa at the 12th Special Session of the Association`s Assembly on ACFTA; Eritrea is the only country among the 55 member states of the African Union that has not signed the agreement.    At this summit, Benin and Nigeria signed the agreement, so that Eritrea is the only African state not to be part of the agreement; Since then, Eritrea has applied to join the agreement. Gabon and Equatorial Guinea also tabled their ratifications at the summit. At the time of launch, there were 27 states that had ratified the agreement.    The Tripartite Free Trade Area (TFTA) is a draft free trade agreement between the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and the East African Community (EAC).
 At the Kigali Summit, areas of convergence were found on trade protocols, dispute settlement procedures, customs cooperation, trade facilitation and rules of origin.